AcidBase Reactions in Solution Crash Course Chemistry 8
All right, so you're studying chemistry, what's the worst that could happen in most classes, the worst that can happen is just abject, total failure.You're just like failing the test, failing the class, having to rethink your life choices, maybe even quit, drop out of school, get a job at a diner, and start smoking lucky strikes.But in chemistry, the worst thing that can happen is death.And i don't want to make light of this labs are dangerous places.Chemists die younger than the average person, both because of workplace accidents and cancer caused by exposure to chemicals.
But chemists have also done more to increase the average lifespan of humans on earth than, in my opinion, any other profession.So, it's a necessary hazard.Last week we talked about stuff mixing together, and that's important for sure.But today and for the next few weeks, we're gonna talk about the actual reactions happening in those solutions.Dangerous reactions atoms reorganizing themselves to create whole new substances.These are the processes that make our world the world that we know and love.Some of them are benign and beautiful, some of them are facemeltingly terrifying.
And that's not hyperbole, i mean actual melted faces.Theme music captain john mullen, there, he blazed the first wagon trail across the rocky mountains into the interior pacific northwest.The captain's only been standing in this spot right here for about 75 years.And look what's happened to his face.I know this maybe isn't the face melting you were expecting, but we're not so gruesome here at crash course chemistry.The sorry state of mr.Mullen's face here is the result of an acidbase reaction, one of the three major types of reactions that happen in solution,.
That we'll be talking about here at crash course chemistry.And the acid that did this, was mostly sulfuric acid.Now you may be wondering, who's been coming by and throwing sulfuric acid on statues well actually, what's been doing the throwing is clouds, the sky, though the actual source of the sulfuric acid, that's 400 miles away at the colstrip power plant in colstrip, montana, and also at coal fired power plants all over the united states.The united states of america burns about a billion tons of coal per year,.
And most of that coal, is mined right here in the u.S.Montana, where i live, is home to the powder river basin, a geographical location responsible for 40 of america's coal output.Between fifty and seventy freight trains ship out of the powder river basin every day.Each train has at least 115 coal cars and is more than a mile and a half long.And all of this coal burning, it has effects, significant effects, acidic effects.But first, like, what exactly are acids and bases.Well acids.Uhh.Sour.So sour, that's the first thing that we learned about acids,.
Actually, and that's why acid.Uuhh.Actually means sour in greek or latin.Latin.Acids are excellent at dissolving stuff they kill things and melt your face.What about bases you might have some idea about what a base is bitter tasting, slippery like soap soap is in fact a base.And bases, like acids, are totally dangerous and can melt off your face.They're also like the antiacid basically.In fact, they're in antacids.If you mix acids and bases together they neutralize each other.But as with most things in chemistry and in life,.
When it comes right down to trying to define exactly what something is, it gets weird and messy and confusing and terrible.So, forget everything you ever learned about acids, wipe the slate clean, the most common acid on earth is water.Wuh and water is the most common base, and am i saying this purely to confuse you yes! well, mostly to convince you that the world is way more complicated than you thought it was.In 1923, two guys simultaneously defined acids and bases in the exact same way.
Bronsted and lowry defined them they didn't classify them by how they acted or what they tasted like or even what they were made of, they defined them.And this was an impressive feat because a huge class of molecules, to some extent or another, act as acids and bases.So to come up with a definition that fit all of them, that was not so simple.Bronsted and lowry defined an acid as being anything that donates a proton and a base as being anything that accepts a proton.And when we say proton, what we're talking about here is a hydrogen atom without its electron.
Usually this is happening in water, acids and bases can react in gas, but almost always they're in an aqueous solution, and when a proton gets donated in water, it is accepted by water.And h2o is converted into h3o, the hydronium ion.So when an acid is added to water, it dissociates, like any other ionic compound, forming h3o and a negative ion.The acid has donated a proton to the water.Also a little chemistry terminology thing we usually just write h or say protons in solution when in fact we are referring to hydronium ions.
It's just a short hand.In reality, h in aqueous solution is always h3o.Let's take a look at the dissociation of hydrochloric acid for some more terminology bits here.You see right off the bat that the hcl is donating a proton.But with many acids, particularly weaker acids, the reaction can actually go back the other way, with h3o donating it's proton.So in this situation, every chemical in the reaction, also sometimes the major species, can be called an acid or a base.On the left hand side, the water is accepting the proton so it's the base, and hcl is donating it, so it's the acid.
And on the left hand side, the cl would be accepting the proton, so that would be the conjugate base, and the hydronium ion is the conjugate acid.The phrase conjugate acid always used to confuse me because i thought it had something to do with conjugating verbs.But it's actually the older, original sense of the word the one where conjugal, or marriage related visits for prisoners, come from, which means joined together.For every acid, there is a conjugate base and for every base there is a conjugate acid.
Previous definitions of acids and bases, particularly the one proposed by our old friend arrhenius, relied on specific major species.Most notably our friend the oh or hydroxide ion.And while hydroxide is in most bases, it's not in all of them.For example, ammonia acts as a base when it reacts with hydrochloric acid to form ammonium chloride.There's no hydroxide but there is definitely proton donation and acceptance going on.Now acids and bases are not all created equal.Certain acids really like to get rid of their protons.
And will only reluctantly convert back to their conjugate base by accepting a proton.We call them strong acids, and the conjugate base is a weak base.The same can be said for strong bases and their weak conjugate acids.The reason why all of the most interesting acidbase chemistry happens in water is that dihydrogen oxide is really great at being either a base, accepting a proton from an acid, or an acid, donating a proton to a base.Thus water is the world's most common acid and also the most common base.
So, what does any of this have to do with power plants and john mullen's face when coal is burned the sulfur in it reacts with oxygen to form sulfur dioxide.That sulfur dioxide then reacts with water and oxygen in the air to form sulfuric acid.When that sulfuric acid rains down, a set of acidbase reactions take place that damages limestone and metal, and acidifies the water supply, making life harder for fish, coral, salamanders, and pretty much everything else.Limestone is mostly made of a chemical called calcium carbonate.
The carbonate acts as the base, accepting sulfuric acid's protons and converting them to carbonic acid the conjugate acid, which breaks down into co2 and water.Calcium and sulfate ions may precipitate as a salt that's more commonly known as gypsum.Ok, so the average ton of coal in america is about 3 sulfur.Supposing a hundred percent of those 30 kilograms of sulfur leaves the smoke stack and converts to sulfuric acid, how much limestone could that completely wash away as i've said before, just follow the units.30 kilograms of sulfur multiplied by 1000 grams per kilogram,.
Multiply that by 1 mole over 32.1 grams of sulfur to get 935 moles of sulfur in every ton of coal burnt.Now, if every mole of that sulfur is converted to h2so4 and every mole of that sulfuric acid reacts with a mole of limestone converting it to a mole of gypsum, then that's 935 moles of limestone dissolved.There are 100.1 grams of calcium carbonate per mole.If we multiply that by 935 moles we get 93,600 grams or 93.6 kilograms.So each ton of coal burnt by a u.S.Power plant produces enough sulfuric acid.
To dissolve about 94 kilograms of limestone.And as we burn about a billion tons of coal per year, it's safe to say that no statue is safe, except for ones built of materials immune to acids, particularly oxidized copper, which will last pretty much forever.Hence, lady liberty's hand presiding over the planet of the apes.So, this is clearly a problem.I mean not just for statues, but acid rain has killed or harmed huge swaths of forests.At the peak of acid rain problems in the u.S.The highest recorded acidity was around that of lemon juice,.
Which i can tell you, is pretty acidic high enough to irritate human skin.This first became an issue for the power generation when the british house of lords, in 1929, ruled that a power station was liable to damages caused to nearby crops by acid rain.So something had to be done, but what well, we already know one very common chemical that reacts easily with sulfuric acid good old limestone, and in england, there is lots of limestone.By passing the smoke stack gases through a limestone slurry, the so2 converts to an acid and then reacts with the limestone forming caso3, calcium sulfate.
Now we're gonna do something a little different for those of you who want to go the extra mile.Assuming that one billion metric tons of 3 sulfur coal was burnt in america every year, and all of it is converted to so2, how many tons of limestone would we need to scrub out 100 of that sulfur.Answer us down below in the comments.The limestone scrubber is a good system, but it's not perfect.Many other flue gas desulfurization systems have been developed, and now through a combination of good policy, good science, and hard work,.
About 95 of sulfur produced in coal fired power plants in the u.S.Is removed before it leaves the smoke stack.And through some even smarter chemistry, some of that so2 is actually converted to industrially useful chemicals.For example, pure sulfuric acid, which is used in paper mills, iron and steel making, industrial cleaner, and chemical synthesis.Chemistry! causing problems but also fixing them.Thank you for watching this episode of crash course chemistry.If you were paying attention, you may have learned that chemistry can cause death, that acids and bases are more complicated than you thought they were,.
And that acid donates protons while a base accepts them.You also should have learned that when an acid donates a proton it forms a conjugate base and when a base donates a proton it forms a conjugate acid.Also, we did a little bit of acidbase stoichiometry.This episode of crash course chemistry was written by kim krieger and myself.The script was edited by blake de pastino, and our chemistry consultant is Heiko langner.Our director, cinematographer, and editor is nicholas jenkins.Script supervisor is caitlin hofmeister.Sound design is by michael aranda, and our graphics team is thought cafe.
Acidcatalyzed ester hydrolysis
Voiceover in the tutorial on fischer esterification we saw that if we took a carboxylic and alcohol, in an acidcatalyzed reaction, we produced an ester, and we also produced water.Our goal in that tutorial was to make more of our ester, so we shifted the equilibrium to the right, to make more of our product.In this tutorial, we're talking about the reverse reaction we're going to talk about ester hydrolysis.So if we increase the concentration of water, that would shift the equilibrium back to the left, and we would hydrolyze our ester,.
And turn it into our alcohol and our carboxylic acid.So, it's important to think about what bond we're going to break you can see that we're going to break this bond, in here, and this oxygen, and this r prime group turn into our alcohol, and so we'll see that in our mechanism.So let's go ahead, and look at the details of the mechanism, where we're starting with an ester, and we're going to, first, think about what else is present.One solution, h two o, and h plus,.
Would give us h three o plus, and i'm going to go ahead and draw in the hydronium ion, over here, so this is h three o plus.The first step of the mechanism is to protonate the carbon eel oxygen, so this lone pair of electrons picks up a proton from hydronium and let's go ahead and show the protonated carbon eel, so now we have our oxygen, it has been protonated, so it has a plus one formal charge, so let's show those electrons, so these electrons right here,.
In magenta, pick up this proton to form this bond right here, and this activates our carbon eel, so we've seen this in earlier tutorials, so when you think about a resonance structure, that actually makes this carbon more positive, it's more electrophilic, and therefore, that carbon is going to react with a nucleophile in our next step, and our nucleophile here is water, so water's gonna function as a nucleophile, the nucleophile attacks our electrophile, and that pushes these electrons off, onto this oxygen, so when we show the bond now, between the oxygen.
And that carbon, let me go ahead and draw in the rest of this this would be a plus one formal charge on this oxygen, and let me highlight those electrons here, so these electrons in blue, are going to form the bond between this carbon and this oxygen.We still have an oxygen over here, on the left, and now, that oxygen has two lone pairs of electrons, so let me go ahead and show those electrons here, so let me make them green, so these electrons right here, in green, move off.
Onto here, and are now a lone pair on that oxygen, we still have an oxygen bonded to this carbon, and an r prime group.The next step, we need to deprotonate we need to get rid of that plus one formal charge, and so, a molecule of water can come along, and this time, function as a base, so water's gonna function as a base, gonna take this proton, leaving these electrons behind, on that oxygen, so let's get some space down here, to show the deprotonation, so we would now have this.
Carbon, with an oh on the left, and after we deprotonate, we're also gonna have an oh on the right, so let me go ahead and draw in that oh, on the right, so, showing those electrons, let's make those red, so these electrons in here, are gonna move off onto this oxygen, and then drawing in everything else, we have our r group on the left, and we have or prime on the right, and i'm gonna go ahead and put in lone pairs of electrons on this oxygen, because in the next step.
In the mechanism, we're going to protonate that oxygen.So hydronium is present, so h three o plus, so i'm gonna go ahead and draw that in here, so h three o plus, this oxygen is gonna pick up a proton from hydronium, leaving these electrons behind, and so we're gonna protonate that oxygen, and the reason why we protonate that oxygen is it turns it into a better leaving group, so let me go ahead and draw in everything, so we have our oh groups at the top, we have our r group on the left, we have our oxygen,.
Which has been protonated now, so it's gonna have a plus one formal charge, so plus one formal charge on this oxygen, let's show those electrons, so let's make those blue, here, so i'm saying that this lone pair is gonna take this proton, forming this bond, right here, and if you look closely, you now have alcohol hiding as a leaving group, because in the next step of the mechanism, we're going to reform our carbon eel, and alcohol is going to leave, so if these electrons move into here, to reform our carbon eel,.
That's too many bonds to carbon, and so these electrons are gonna come off, onto the oxygen, and so here's the bondbreaking step, where the alcohol leaves, and so let's go ahead and draw our product, so we're going to form our carbon eel, and this oxygen is going to have a plus one formal charge now, and we have an r group, and, over here, would be an oh, because the alcohol is going to leave, so i'm gonna go ahead, and draw in the alcohol here, so or prime,.
With now two lone pairs of electrons, so let's follow some electrons, so these electrons in blue, are the same ones as blue up here, and let's make these electrons in here red, so these electrons in red are going to come off, onto this oxygen, so we lose our alcohol at this step, so loss of our alcohol gives us this, over here, so we're almost done with our reaction, so this is really close to a carboxylic acid, all we would have to do is deprotonate, so we could think about another molecule of water.
Coming along, and acting as a base, so water acts as a base, takes this proton, leaves these electrons behind, and that, of course, gives us our carboxylic acid.So, if i just go ahead and draw in our r group, and then we have roh, and let's follow those electrons, so let's make those red as well, so these electrons, right here, come off, and we get our carboxylic acid as our product, so there's your mechanism for acidcatalyzed ester hydrolysis, which produces a carboxylic acid, and it produces an alcohol,.
And when we look at some reactions in a second here, we're gonna think about this part, right here, where we lose our alcohol as one of our products, to also give us our carboxylic acid.So let's look at a reaction so, over here on the left, we have methyl salicylate, or oil of wintergreen, and we're looking for an ester, because we have h two o and h plus, giving us hydronium in solution, and so this is the portion of the molecule that's going to react, it's going to.
Hydrolyze that ester, and we know from the mechanism, this is the bond that's going to break in our mechanism, and so, we can go ahead and draw our products, so we're gonna break that bond, and the whole left portion, so let me go ahead and draw that, this whole left portion here is going to form our carboxylic acid, so let's go ahead and draw in our carboxylic acid, as one of our products, so we have our ring we have our carboxylic acid, so this oh on our.
Carboxylic acid, this oh came from h two o in the mechanism, and then we have this other oh, which produces, of course, salicylic acid, and then we're thinking about our alcohol product, let me go ahead and use green for this, so this is going to leave, we can see that, after you protonate, you get loss of that as your alcohol, and so if we just add a proton onto this oxygen here, we can see that we would form methanol, as our other product, so if i go ahead.
And draw in the methanol here, we have our two products we have salicylic acid, and we have methanol, so acidcatalyzed ester hydrolysis.This reaction is at equilibrium, technically, and so you could do things like push the equilibrium to the right, and if you remember from the fischer esterification tutorial, this is what we use to make our wintergreen we used methanol, and we used salicylic acid to produce our wintergreen, and so everything depends on reactions conditions, in terms of shifting the equilibrium.Let's look at another practice problem here.
So, once again, we have our ester, and we have water, and i drew the water in a little bit of a weird way, and i'll show you why in a second, so acidcatalyzed ester hydrolysis, once again, we think about what bond is gonna break this bond is gonna break, and the left side is going to turn into our carboxylic acid, so we can go ahead and draw our carboxylic acid, so we would have this portion of the molecule, so our carboxylic acid, like that, and once again,.
This oh, let me go ahead and highlight it, so this oh right here, in our carboxylic acid came from our water molecule, so we could think about losing a proton off of water, and then we form our carboxylic acid on the right, our other product, let's be consistent and stick with green here, this is the portion that's gonna turn into our alcohol, so we think about adding a proton onto that oxygen, and, once again we have methanol, as our other product, so, acidcatalyzed ester hydrolysis.Now the reason i drew the water molecule.
In a weird way, is because, what would happen if, instead of this hydrogen, what would happen if we had an r group, an alkyl group well, that would change this hydrogen into an alkyl group, and then we would form an ester as our product, so we'd be starting with one ester, and we'd be turning it into another ester, and that is called, transesterification, so pretty much the same reaction that we've been talking about, except we wouldn't get a carboxylic acid, as one of our products we would get another ester.
And so, let's go ahead and do this again, starting with the same ester, but this time, we're gonna use butanol, instead of water.So, once again, we can think about losing, we're gonna break that bond, and we're going to lose this proton, and then we could stick those portions of the molecule together.So, if we stick this together with this, we can see the identity of the other ester that will form, so let's go ahead and draw in our product, so we would have an oxygen here, and then we'd have.
Four carbons one, two, three, four so these four carbons from butanol, which form our ester.Our other product, once again, we see this portion over here, that would give us methanol, so once again, we have methanol as our product, and even though everything is at equilibrium, methanol has a very low boiling point, so we could boil off the methanol, and shift the equilibrium to the right to make more of our product.So we can see, once gain, we're starting with an ester of methanol, and we're converting it.
Alkaline Hydrolysis Of Methyl Salicylate
Alkaline hydrolysis of methyl salicylate,We take otc methyl salicylate oil of wintergreen and demonstrate how to hydrolyse it using aqueous alkali into methanol and salicylic acid we separate and. Esters 6 alkaline hydrolysis of esters inc saponification,This short tutorial looks at the alkaline catalysed hydrolysis of both simple and complex esters the later making a soap in what is also known as a saponification. Piperine hydrolysis to piperinic acid and piperidine,We perform an alkaline hydrolysis of piperine extracted from white pepper to form piperinic acid and piperidine we work up the reaction mixture and separate.
Hydrolysis of esters,Description. 183 deduce whether salts form acidic alkaline or neutral aqueous solutions hl ib chemistry,If you know if the acid and base used to make the salt you can judge its ph the ph will be related to that of the stronger reactant explaining this requires you to. Hydrolysis of peptides,Hydrolysis of peptides using acidic and alkaline conditions.
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Acidbase reactions in solution crash course chemistry 8,Last week hank talked about how stuff mixes together in solutions today and for the next few weeks he will talk about the actual reactions happening in those. Alkaline hydrolisis,Here at springfield funeral home we believe that every person has a story to tell and we hope to help you celebrate remember and reconnect with yours.
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Acidcatalyzed ester hydrolysis,The mechanism for the acidcatalyzed hydrolysis of esters and transesterification more free lessons atkhanacademytutorialvk7xak7evlsc. Tio2 solgel titania sol alkaline,Sresearchgateprofilerobertprzekop preparation of a sol of titanium oxide by hydrolysis of titanium butoxide by alkaline. Water electrolysis,Two simple demonstrations of water electrolysis the first demonstration was learned at the 2010 csta conference at tara krischs orange grove middle.
Alkaline fat emulsification natural alkaline ph diet,Alkalinephdiet alkaline ph diet see a visualization of fat naturally emulsifying through an alkaline ph body learn about our easy organic. Power sticks convert bottled water to alkaline antioxidant water,A water tree demo on the power stick product which converts bottled water to alkaline antioxidant water after shaking for 30 seconds will convert 250 12oz. Ester hydrolysis,Tutorial showing how ester hydrolysis is sped up under acidic ph and basic ph.
Jesus In A Shampoo Kosher Soap
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Hydrolysis of acetals and ketals,Hydrolysis of acetals ketals and their hemi derivants part 3 in a series discussing addition of alcohols to aldehydes and ketones this time we reversed the. Ester hydrolysis a music tutorial,Warwick university chemistry 2nd year key skills assignment group 7 szeyin tan marcus taylor michael morgan jenny moore lyrics ester. Ester hydrolysis uncatalyzed vs catalyzed,In this webcast well use ester hydrolysis as an example of a reaction that can be sped up using a catalyst.
Acid hydrolysis of dna,For more information log on to shomusbiologyweebly this lecture explains the mechanism of acid hydrolysis of dna and the importance of acid.