Ever had one of those days where a cat was chewing up your circuit board or maybe you have an old amplifier where the capacitors seem to be leaking this yucky poisonous goo if you have ever been in that situation you might be able to fix the circuit board by replacing the capacitors.Let's run through an example where i replace this capacitor from a circuit board.First up some theory.What is a capacitor a capacitor is an energy storage device that can be used to smooth out voltages.
Every capacitor will have two important ratings capacitance and voltage.Capacitance is a way of saying how much energy the capacitor can hold at a given voltage.Capacitances usually expressed in microfarads uf.Ninety nine percent of the time when you are replacing a capacitor, you want to use the same capacitance rating or very close to it.The capacitor over here is 470uf.If i want to replace it i should ideally use another 470uf capacitor.The other important number is the voltage rating.The voltage rating is the maximum voltage.
That the capacitor can handle before it explodes.Now i want to say that again, the voltage written on the side of the capacitor means that this is the maximum voltage that the capacitor should ever be exposed to.It does not mean necessarily that the capacitor is at that voltage.For example this is a 16 volt capacitor.This does not mean that it is charged to 16 volts like a battery.It means that if charge it up to 5 volts it will be fine.If i charge it to 10 volts it will be fine.
If i charge it to 16 volts it will just about handle it.And if i charge it to 25 volts it will explode.Going back to our example capacitor i can see that it is rated at 16 volts.If i want to replace it i should use a 16v or higher rated capacitor.Now it turns out that the only 470uf capacitors that i have in my parts box are rated 25 volts.And that's totally fine.If the original circuit only required a 16v capacitor, if i use a 25v capacitor that just means i get a bigger safety margin.
Next let's talk about polarity.The negative side of an electrolytic capacitor will always have these little negative symbols.All you have to do is make sure that you match up the polarity with the original capacitor.If you get the polarity backwards, this is what happens.So now that i have the correct polarity i'm going to replace capacitor and solder it in.Finally i want to give you a little safety warning.If you ever seen any of these big capacitors with high voltage ratings like 200 volts, you should be careful to not touch them.
Battery amphour watthour and C rating tutorial
Welcome to my battery capacity tutorial.I'm going to talk about amps, amphours, watthours, c ratings, and other important things that you need to know when working with batteries.First i'd like to talk about a common question people have.Let's say a battery like this is capable of delivering one amp.Just because a battery or any power source is capable of delivering one amp, it doesn't mean that if you connect it to something it will definitely supply one amp.Voltage sources like batteries will only deliver as much current as the load.
Needs.The amount that the load draws depends on the load.It could be a low resistance load that draws a lot of current.A high resistance load that draws barely any current.Or it could be a complicated digital device like this microcontroller which draws a different amount of current depending on what it's doing.This 2ah battery is capable of delivering over 4 amps, but with the motor i have connected to it, it's only delivering 2ma.And it can do it for hundreds of hours.If you're confused so far.
Keep watching! the first thing that you need to understand is that amps and amphours are two completely different things.You've heard about amps or amperes before.That's a unit to describe how much electrical current is flowing.But what is an amphour an amphour is a completely different unit.It's a measure of capacity, and it's a way to help estimate the amount of energy that a battery can hold.For example, here we have a rechargeable aa battery.The capacity is 2000mah, or 2ah 2 amphours.The simple explanation of what this means is that it can supply two amps for.
One hour until the battery runs out of energy.Two amps multiplied by one hour is 2 amphours.If we draw less current, the battery lasts longer.It could deliver one amp for two hours.And if we draw more current the battery gets drained faster.It can deliver 4 amps for half an hour.So amphours are simple way of estimating battery life.And in general, capacity in amphours divided by the load in amps gives you the battery life in hours.So does that mean that this battery can.
Deliver a 120 amps for one minute let's try! hmmm it seems the battery is only able to supply 9 amps.And its heating up a lot.Let's google the data sheet of the battery and see what the limitation is.Take a look at this.This battery has an internal impedance of 25 milliohms.So it's kind of like there's a little resistor inside the battery.But in reality it's going to be a limitation of the battery's chemical reaction and electrodes.This internal impedance limits the amount of current that the battery can.
Deliver and from electronics perspective it effectively becomes the source of heat when the battery is delivering current.This explains why very few batteries can actually deliver 120 amps.And it raises the question.How much current can a battery safely deliver a little lower in the datasheet we can see the discharge curves of the battery, ranging from 400ma to 4a.So it's implied that we probably shouldn't be discharging this battery at a rate higher than 4 amps.Oops! also take a look at this.Notice how the effective capacity changes depending on how fast we.
Discharge the battery.This is only a 2 amp hour battery when we discharge it at under 400ma.If we discharge it at 4 amps the effective capacity is only 1.7 amphours because now we're losing a lot more energy in the form of internal heating.And the overall trend is that the more current we draw, the lower the output voltage will be because we're dropping voltage across the internal resistance of the battery.So this 1.2 volt 2 amphour rating is only a guideline of what you can expect to see under ideal conditions.
Okay that's amphours.Now here's something to get you thinking.This is a 1.2 volt 2 amphour battery.Over here we have a 9.6 volt 2 amphour battery pack.So if these are both 2 amphour batteries, do they both hold the same amount of energy of course not! the 1.2 volt battery will theoretically deliver two amps for one hour with a voltage of around 1.2 volts.The 9.6 volt battery pack will also theoretically deliver two amps for one hour but with a voltage around 9.6 volts.So one way we can compare the stored energy of these two batteries.
Is to use another unit called watthours.Volts x amps watts.So you can probably guess that volts x amphours watthours.The single cell has a capacity of 2.4 watthours and the larger battery pack has a capacity of 19.2 watthours.Now it's more obvious which battery stores more energy because we're comparing apples to apples and watthours to watthours.Now let's talk about c ratings.Here are two batteries that seem identical.They both have a nominal voltage of 11.1 volts and a capacity of 2200mah.They look the same but one of them has a 20c rating.
And the other is rated at 40c.But what is a c rating the c rating is an informal way of describing how much current the battery can safely deliver.If you show a battery discharge curve like this to most people they'll have no idea what it means.And it's not very exciting marketing material.So marketers like use c ratings instead.The c refers to the battery's capacity in amphours.So this 20c battery can deliver 20xc, or 20 x 2.2ah, so this battery can safely deliver up to.
44 amps.And this 40c battery can safely deliver 88 amps.Now are you confused because you should be.Remember that amps and amphours are completely different units.C ratings are confusing because they screw up the units.You multiply the amphour capacity by the c rating and then you pretend the result is in amps.Finally i can't make a tutorial about amphours without mentioning the amp hour, a podcast for electrical engineers.Check out the link in the tutorial description! thank you for watching and check out the tutorial description section for a link to.
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