AcidBase Reactions in Solution Crash Course Chemistry 8
All right, so you're studying chemistry, what's the worst that could happen in most classes, the worst that can happen is just abject, total failure.You're just like failing the test, failing the class, having to rethink your life choices, maybe even quit, drop out of school, get a job at a diner, and start smoking lucky strikes.But in chemistry, the worst thing that can happen is death.And i don't want to make light of this labs are dangerous places.Chemists die younger than the average person, both because of workplace accidents and cancer caused by exposure to chemicals.
But chemists have also done more to increase the average lifespan of humans on earth than, in my opinion, any other profession.So, it's a necessary hazard.Last week we talked about stuff mixing together, and that's important for sure.But today and for the next few weeks, we're gonna talk about the actual reactions happening in those solutions.Dangerous reactions atoms reorganizing themselves to create whole new substances.These are the processes that make our world the world that we know and love.Some of them are benign and beautiful, some of them are facemeltingly terrifying.
And that's not hyperbole, i mean actual melted faces.Theme music captain john mullen, there, he blazed the first wagon trail across the rocky mountains into the interior pacific northwest.The captain's only been standing in this spot right here for about 75 years.And look what's happened to his face.I know this maybe isn't the face melting you were expecting, but we're not so gruesome here at crash course chemistry.The sorry state of mr.Mullen's face here is the result of an acidbase reaction, one of the three major types of reactions that happen in solution,.
That we'll be talking about here at crash course chemistry.And the acid that did this, was mostly sulfuric acid.Now you may be wondering, who's been coming by and throwing sulfuric acid on statues well actually, what's been doing the throwing is clouds, the sky, though the actual source of the sulfuric acid, that's 400 miles away at the colstrip power plant in colstrip, montana, and also at coal fired power plants all over the united states.The united states of america burns about a billion tons of coal per year,.
And most of that coal, is mined right here in the u.S.Montana, where i live, is home to the powder river basin, a geographical location responsible for 40 of america's coal output.Between fifty and seventy freight trains ship out of the powder river basin every day.Each train has at least 115 coal cars and is more than a mile and a half long.And all of this coal burning, it has effects, significant effects, acidic effects.But first, like, what exactly are acids and bases.Well acids.Uhh.Sour.So sour, that's the first thing that we learned about acids,.
Actually, and that's why acid.Uuhh.Actually means sour in greek or latin.Latin.Acids are excellent at dissolving stuff they kill things and melt your face.What about bases you might have some idea about what a base is bitter tasting, slippery like soap soap is in fact a base.And bases, like acids, are totally dangerous and can melt off your face.They're also like the antiacid basically.In fact, they're in antacids.If you mix acids and bases together they neutralize each other.But as with most things in chemistry and in life,.
When it comes right down to trying to define exactly what something is, it gets weird and messy and confusing and terrible.So, forget everything you ever learned about acids, wipe the slate clean, the most common acid on earth is water.Wuh and water is the most common base, and am i saying this purely to confuse you yes! well, mostly to convince you that the world is way more complicated than you thought it was.In 1923, two guys simultaneously defined acids and bases in the exact same way.
Bronsted and lowry defined them they didn't classify them by how they acted or what they tasted like or even what they were made of, they defined them.And this was an impressive feat because a huge class of molecules, to some extent or another, act as acids and bases.So to come up with a definition that fit all of them, that was not so simple.Bronsted and lowry defined an acid as being anything that donates a proton and a base as being anything that accepts a proton.And when we say proton, what we're talking about here is a hydrogen atom without its electron.
Usually this is happening in water, acids and bases can react in gas, but almost always they're in an aqueous solution, and when a proton gets donated in water, it is accepted by water.And h2o is converted into h3o, the hydronium ion.So when an acid is added to water, it dissociates, like any other ionic compound, forming h3o and a negative ion.The acid has donated a proton to the water.Also a little chemistry terminology thing we usually just write h or say protons in solution when in fact we are referring to hydronium ions.
It's just a short hand.In reality, h in aqueous solution is always h3o.Let's take a look at the dissociation of hydrochloric acid for some more terminology bits here.You see right off the bat that the hcl is donating a proton.But with many acids, particularly weaker acids, the reaction can actually go back the other way, with h3o donating it's proton.So in this situation, every chemical in the reaction, also sometimes the major species, can be called an acid or a base.On the left hand side, the water is accepting the proton so it's the base, and hcl is donating it, so it's the acid.
And on the left hand side, the cl would be accepting the proton, so that would be the conjugate base, and the hydronium ion is the conjugate acid.The phrase conjugate acid always used to confuse me because i thought it had something to do with conjugating verbs.But it's actually the older, original sense of the word the one where conjugal, or marriage related visits for prisoners, come from, which means joined together.For every acid, there is a conjugate base and for every base there is a conjugate acid.
Previous definitions of acids and bases, particularly the one proposed by our old friend arrhenius, relied on specific major species.Most notably our friend the oh or hydroxide ion.And while hydroxide is in most bases, it's not in all of them.For example, ammonia acts as a base when it reacts with hydrochloric acid to form ammonium chloride.There's no hydroxide but there is definitely proton donation and acceptance going on.Now acids and bases are not all created equal.Certain acids really like to get rid of their protons.
And will only reluctantly convert back to their conjugate base by accepting a proton.We call them strong acids, and the conjugate base is a weak base.The same can be said for strong bases and their weak conjugate acids.The reason why all of the most interesting acidbase chemistry happens in water is that dihydrogen oxide is really great at being either a base, accepting a proton from an acid, or an acid, donating a proton to a base.Thus water is the world's most common acid and also the most common base.
So, what does any of this have to do with power plants and john mullen's face when coal is burned the sulfur in it reacts with oxygen to form sulfur dioxide.That sulfur dioxide then reacts with water and oxygen in the air to form sulfuric acid.When that sulfuric acid rains down, a set of acidbase reactions take place that damages limestone and metal, and acidifies the water supply, making life harder for fish, coral, salamanders, and pretty much everything else.Limestone is mostly made of a chemical called calcium carbonate.
The carbonate acts as the base, accepting sulfuric acid's protons and converting them to carbonic acid the conjugate acid, which breaks down into co2 and water.Calcium and sulfate ions may precipitate as a salt that's more commonly known as gypsum.Ok, so the average ton of coal in america is about 3 sulfur.Supposing a hundred percent of those 30 kilograms of sulfur leaves the smoke stack and converts to sulfuric acid, how much limestone could that completely wash away as i've said before, just follow the units.30 kilograms of sulfur multiplied by 1000 grams per kilogram,.
Multiply that by 1 mole over 32.1 grams of sulfur to get 935 moles of sulfur in every ton of coal burnt.Now, if every mole of that sulfur is converted to h2so4 and every mole of that sulfuric acid reacts with a mole of limestone converting it to a mole of gypsum, then that's 935 moles of limestone dissolved.There are 100.1 grams of calcium carbonate per mole.If we multiply that by 935 moles we get 93,600 grams or 93.6 kilograms.So each ton of coal burnt by a u.S.Power plant produces enough sulfuric acid.
To dissolve about 94 kilograms of limestone.And as we burn about a billion tons of coal per year, it's safe to say that no statue is safe, except for ones built of materials immune to acids, particularly oxidized copper, which will last pretty much forever.Hence, lady liberty's hand presiding over the planet of the apes.So, this is clearly a problem.I mean not just for statues, but acid rain has killed or harmed huge swaths of forests.At the peak of acid rain problems in the u.S.The highest recorded acidity was around that of lemon juice,.
Which i can tell you, is pretty acidic high enough to irritate human skin.This first became an issue for the power generation when the british house of lords, in 1929, ruled that a power station was liable to damages caused to nearby crops by acid rain.So something had to be done, but what well, we already know one very common chemical that reacts easily with sulfuric acid good old limestone, and in england, there is lots of limestone.By passing the smoke stack gases through a limestone slurry, the so2 converts to an acid and then reacts with the limestone forming caso3, calcium sulfate.
Now we're gonna do something a little different for those of you who want to go the extra mile.Assuming that one billion metric tons of 3 sulfur coal was burnt in america every year, and all of it is converted to so2, how many tons of limestone would we need to scrub out 100 of that sulfur.Answer us down below in the comments.The limestone scrubber is a good system, but it's not perfect.Many other flue gas desulfurization systems have been developed, and now through a combination of good policy, good science, and hard work,.
About 95 of sulfur produced in coal fired power plants in the u.S.Is removed before it leaves the smoke stack.And through some even smarter chemistry, some of that so2 is actually converted to industrially useful chemicals.For example, pure sulfuric acid, which is used in paper mills, iron and steel making, industrial cleaner, and chemical synthesis.Chemistry! causing problems but also fixing them.Thank you for watching this episode of crash course chemistry.If you were paying attention, you may have learned that chemistry can cause death, that acids and bases are more complicated than you thought they were,.
And that acid donates protons while a base accepts them.You also should have learned that when an acid donates a proton it forms a conjugate base and when a base donates a proton it forms a conjugate acid.Also, we did a little bit of acidbase stoichiometry.This episode of crash course chemistry was written by kim krieger and myself.The script was edited by blake de pastino, and our chemistry consultant is Heiko langner.Our director, cinematographer, and editor is nicholas jenkins.Script supervisor is caitlin hofmeister.Sound design is by michael aranda, and our graphics team is thought cafe.
Why Your Bodys pH is The Secret to Your Vitality
Hey fitlifers, drew canole, i'm here with christa orekio in today's short tutorial, tutorial number two in the sequence we're actually going to show you why your body's ph is the secret to your vitality and also the secret to preventing cancer.I have never tested my ph, so how do we do it we're going to do it today, but first what is ph right it stands for potential hydrogen and is basically a measure of how acid or how alkaline we are, our biochemistry is.Our blood ph it never ever shifts, if it shifted out of this range,.
We would die, so that is not an option, so what we do is we test the ph of people's urine and saliva, to think how hard does your body working just to keep you alive so the ranges are 4.57 and a half that's basically the full range, but your blood ph is 7.257.45.So you want to stay within that narrow window when you're checking your ph that's then you know that your body doesn't work so hard to maintain blood ph, because if it does it's going to leech more from the bones and donate it to the blood or the cause of osteoporosis.
Right there.So the best way to boost up your ph is if you're a little acidic, is actually my favorite thing to do and you love doing this too, juicing! and then juicing, absolutely! so greens, lots of greens to boost up your alkalinity in your body.And all those gingerturmeric recipes that you have are some of the most alkaline forming things that you can absolutely do to start your day with.Yeah, like the turmeric elixir, right yeah, i love that.Cool.So let's do the test, how do we do it where do we get it okay, so you have to go.
To the health food store, and you have to get this ph strips and you can find them in any health food store in the supplement section and then what you do for six days same as the candida test, is as soon as you wake up in the morning, you're going to put a strip in your mouth and you're going to test your ph you keep it in your mouth for about three seconds and then let's pull it out and then there's a range here and you want to match.
It, drew.Fluorescently alkaline, okay he walks his talk.So the other things that you guys want to do is you want to check your first and second morning urine, and the first morning urine starts at 5 am, and you wake up, and you pee on a strip, you go back to sleep then the second morning urine is the second time, so that's, the urine is more accurate than saliva but it will just give you that marker and then you look at your results for over six days and that will give you the idea of where you are and where you.
Need to go and how you need to shift your diet in life.Perfect! so your homework fitlifer, for this tutorial, because i committed to this, and we need you to commit to this as well, we really are in this together, is to go out and get this strips, you can order on amazon as well, i'm going to leave a link to you, you can click on that, and do this for six days, right six days consecutively urine and saliva.Follow the protocol, we listed the protocol out on the blog below and do this for six days and then tutorial number three.
Is coming up, we're actually going to teach you how to build up your hydrochloric acid in your stomach so that you can digest the food, right yes, more energy, more energy, more mental clarity.Yep, a lot of people have vitamin b12 deficiency, it's not because they're not getting enough of it, it's because their hydrochloric acid isn't strong enough to break down the food that they are getting right absolutely.Most common deficiency here is b12.So, we're attacking everything here.How do you feel you feel good yeah,.
I love talking about this stuff.I can tell, you're like glowing right now.It's awesome, ph is the most powerful tool that you have and you guys can test the balance of your ph a few times a year as you're only main is to keep yourselves healthy in the years to come.Well, i'm going to be balancing my ph.Thank you so much for coming on today's show, christa orekio, you guys, big round of applause for her, give her a big thumbs up, share it, like it, love it, do your thing.Drew canole, christa orekio, remember we're.
Acid Vs Alkaline Any Questions
Acid vs alkaline any questions,Its really quite simple the standard american diet sad is responsible for most diseases simply put we are eating ourselves into poor health chronic. 83 distinguish between acidic neutral or alkaline solutions using ph sl ib chemistry,Neutral solutions are ph 7 below ph 7 is acidic and h is greater than oh above ph 7 is alkaline and therefore h is less than oh. 83 identify which solution is more acidic or alkaline using ph values sl ib chemistry,842 identify which of two or more aqueous solutions is more acidic or alkaline using ph values the lower ph value is more acidic the higher ph value is more.
183 deduce whether salts form acidic alkaline or neutral aqueous solutions hl ib chemistry,If you know if the acid and base used to make the salt you can judge its ph the ph will be related to that of the stronger reactant explaining this requires you to. 1831 deduce whether salts form acidic alkaline or neutral aqueous solutions,1831 deduce whether salts form acidic alkaline or neutral aqueous solutions. How to define an acidic buffer and alkaline buffer and what makes up a buffer solution h2chemhacks,A buffer solution can maintain its ph when small amounts of h and oh is added to it this means that inside this buffer a mixture of acid and base must be.
841 distinguish between aqueous solutions that are acidic neutral or alkaline using the ph scale,841 distinguish between aqueous solutions that are acidic neutral or alkaline using the ph scale 842 identify which of two or more aqueous solutions is more.
Do i need an acidic or alkaline perm solution styling secrets,Subscribe now subscriptioncenteradduserehowbeauty watch more ehowbeauty figuring out whether. Acidbase reactions in solution crash course chemistry 8,Last week hank talked about how stuff mixes together in solutions today and for the next few weeks he will talk about the actual reactions happening in those.
Acidic Foods Vs Alkaline Foods
Acidic foods vs alkaline foods,Thank you for watching as an extension of my previous tip tutorial on alkaline water watch here swatchvtxqinry4xc i. How to balance redox equations in basic solution,Well go step by step through how to balance an oxidation reduction redox reaction in basic solution the process is similar to balance an oxidation reduction. Make your own ph indicator from red cabbage,Hello everyone today we will conduct an experiment that anyone can repeat in their home we will make a universal ph indicator from a red cabbage first we.
Difference between acid and alkaline,Difference between alkaline and acidic difference between alkaline vs acidic foods can be classified into two groups namely the acidic food group and the. How to use salt hydrolysis to identify acidic neutral and alkaline salts h2chemhacks,Salt hydrolysis is the acidbase reaction of either the cation or anion with water to release h or oh making the solution acidic or alkaline respectively. Alkaline water healthcare solutions alkaline water news report,Alkaline water healthcare solutions water filters that provide the best filtered drinking water while promoting an alkaline diet.
Top 12 common acid forming acidic foods common healing alkaline foods,There are many acidic foods in our diet that we consume frequently without knowledge that they are acidic dont panic acid forming foods pose a threat to our. Every cancer can be cured in weeks explains dr leonard coldwell alkaline water solutions,In this tutorial dr leonard coldwell discusses how it is possible to cure cancer naturally by increasing the bodys ph level alkaline water healthcare solutions. Balance a redox reaction basic solution,How to balance a redox reaction in basic solution same process as balancing in acidic solution with one extra step 1 make sure electrons gained electrons.
Why Your Bodys PH Is The Secret To Your Vitality
Why your bodys ph is the secret to your vitality,Fitlifetvwhyyourbodysphisthesecrettoyourvitalityjuicewithdrewdrews5daydetox hello fitlifers balancing your ph is. Balancing redox reactions in alkaline solution oxidation number method,A tutorial regarding balancing redox reactions by the oxidation number method in alkaline solution basic solution well go step by step through how to balance. How to make alkaline water,How to make your own alkaline water at home in just a few simple steps the alkaline experience iphone app is now out.
Understanding acid alkaline and the many myths on ph,Find your body type bodytypequiz how important is maintaining the acidity in your body dr berg explains what ph level means in your body and. Intro to alkalineacid balance,Get ph or litmus paper here amznto10cb6de alkalinize your life im sure most of you have heard about the acid alkaline diet or lifestyle in this tutorial i.
Ph are you alkaline or acidic,If you have a question please do not hesitate to contact me at nickschmidtme i am a certified health coach and graduate of the institute for integrative. Acid and alkaline diet andy brine interviews laura wilson,Acid and alkaline diet andy brine interviews laura wilson visit alkalinediethealthtips and. A colorful magic trick with acids and bases,To see all my chemistry tutorials check out socraticchemistry check out a magic trick and then learn how to do it yourself at home well go over the.