AcidBase Reactions in Solution Crash Course Chemistry 8
All right, so you're studying chemistry, what's the worst that could happen in most classes, the worst that can happen is just abject, total failure.You're just like failing the test, failing the class, having to rethink your life choices, maybe even quit, drop out of school, get a job at a diner, and start smoking lucky strikes.But in chemistry, the worst thing that can happen is death.And i don't want to make light of this labs are dangerous places.Chemists die younger than the average person, both because of workplace accidents and cancer caused by exposure to chemicals.
But chemists have also done more to increase the average lifespan of humans on earth than, in my opinion, any other profession.So, it's a necessary hazard.Last week we talked about stuff mixing together, and that's important for sure.But today and for the next few weeks, we're gonna talk about the actual reactions happening in those solutions.Dangerous reactions atoms reorganizing themselves to create whole new substances.These are the processes that make our world the world that we know and love.Some of them are benign and beautiful, some of them are facemeltingly terrifying.
And that's not hyperbole, i mean actual melted faces.Theme music captain john mullen, there, he blazed the first wagon trail across the rocky mountains into the interior pacific northwest.The captain's only been standing in this spot right here for about 75 years.And look what's happened to his face.I know this maybe isn't the face melting you were expecting, but we're not so gruesome here at crash course chemistry.The sorry state of mr.Mullen's face here is the result of an acidbase reaction, one of the three major types of reactions that happen in solution,.
That we'll be talking about here at crash course chemistry.And the acid that did this, was mostly sulfuric acid.Now you may be wondering, who's been coming by and throwing sulfuric acid on statues well actually, what's been doing the throwing is clouds, the sky, though the actual source of the sulfuric acid, that's 400 miles away at the colstrip power plant in colstrip, montana, and also at coal fired power plants all over the united states.The united states of america burns about a billion tons of coal per year,.
And most of that coal, is mined right here in the u.S.Montana, where i live, is home to the powder river basin, a geographical location responsible for 40 of america's coal output.Between fifty and seventy freight trains ship out of the powder river basin every day.Each train has at least 115 coal cars and is more than a mile and a half long.And all of this coal burning, it has effects, significant effects, acidic effects.But first, like, what exactly are acids and bases.Well acids.Uhh.Sour.So sour, that's the first thing that we learned about acids,.
Actually, and that's why acid.Uuhh.Actually means sour in greek or latin.Latin.Acids are excellent at dissolving stuff they kill things and melt your face.What about bases you might have some idea about what a base is bitter tasting, slippery like soap soap is in fact a base.And bases, like acids, are totally dangerous and can melt off your face.They're also like the antiacid basically.In fact, they're in antacids.If you mix acids and bases together they neutralize each other.But as with most things in chemistry and in life,.
When it comes right down to trying to define exactly what something is, it gets weird and messy and confusing and terrible.So, forget everything you ever learned about acids, wipe the slate clean, the most common acid on earth is water.Wuh and water is the most common base, and am i saying this purely to confuse you yes! well, mostly to convince you that the world is way more complicated than you thought it was.In 1923, two guys simultaneously defined acids and bases in the exact same way.
Bronsted and lowry defined them they didn't classify them by how they acted or what they tasted like or even what they were made of, they defined them.And this was an impressive feat because a huge class of molecules, to some extent or another, act as acids and bases.So to come up with a definition that fit all of them, that was not so simple.Bronsted and lowry defined an acid as being anything that donates a proton and a base as being anything that accepts a proton.And when we say proton, what we're talking about here is a hydrogen atom without its electron.
Usually this is happening in water, acids and bases can react in gas, but almost always they're in an aqueous solution, and when a proton gets donated in water, it is accepted by water.And h2o is converted into h3o, the hydronium ion.So when an acid is added to water, it dissociates, like any other ionic compound, forming h3o and a negative ion.The acid has donated a proton to the water.Also a little chemistry terminology thing we usually just write h or say protons in solution when in fact we are referring to hydronium ions.
It's just a short hand.In reality, h in aqueous solution is always h3o.Let's take a look at the dissociation of hydrochloric acid for some more terminology bits here.You see right off the bat that the hcl is donating a proton.But with many acids, particularly weaker acids, the reaction can actually go back the other way, with h3o donating it's proton.So in this situation, every chemical in the reaction, also sometimes the major species, can be called an acid or a base.On the left hand side, the water is accepting the proton so it's the base, and hcl is donating it, so it's the acid.
And on the left hand side, the cl would be accepting the proton, so that would be the conjugate base, and the hydronium ion is the conjugate acid.The phrase conjugate acid always used to confuse me because i thought it had something to do with conjugating verbs.But it's actually the older, original sense of the word the one where conjugal, or marriage related visits for prisoners, come from, which means joined together.For every acid, there is a conjugate base and for every base there is a conjugate acid.
Previous definitions of acids and bases, particularly the one proposed by our old friend arrhenius, relied on specific major species.Most notably our friend the oh or hydroxide ion.And while hydroxide is in most bases, it's not in all of them.For example, ammonia acts as a base when it reacts with hydrochloric acid to form ammonium chloride.There's no hydroxide but there is definitely proton donation and acceptance going on.Now acids and bases are not all created equal.Certain acids really like to get rid of their protons.
And will only reluctantly convert back to their conjugate base by accepting a proton.We call them strong acids, and the conjugate base is a weak base.The same can be said for strong bases and their weak conjugate acids.The reason why all of the most interesting acidbase chemistry happens in water is that dihydrogen oxide is really great at being either a base, accepting a proton from an acid, or an acid, donating a proton to a base.Thus water is the world's most common acid and also the most common base.
So, what does any of this have to do with power plants and john mullen's face when coal is burned the sulfur in it reacts with oxygen to form sulfur dioxide.That sulfur dioxide then reacts with water and oxygen in the air to form sulfuric acid.When that sulfuric acid rains down, a set of acidbase reactions take place that damages limestone and metal, and acidifies the water supply, making life harder for fish, coral, salamanders, and pretty much everything else.Limestone is mostly made of a chemical called calcium carbonate.
The carbonate acts as the base, accepting sulfuric acid's protons and converting them to carbonic acid the conjugate acid, which breaks down into co2 and water.Calcium and sulfate ions may precipitate as a salt that's more commonly known as gypsum.Ok, so the average ton of coal in america is about 3 sulfur.Supposing a hundred percent of those 30 kilograms of sulfur leaves the smoke stack and converts to sulfuric acid, how much limestone could that completely wash away as i've said before, just follow the units.30 kilograms of sulfur multiplied by 1000 grams per kilogram,.
Multiply that by 1 mole over 32.1 grams of sulfur to get 935 moles of sulfur in every ton of coal burnt.Now, if every mole of that sulfur is converted to h2so4 and every mole of that sulfuric acid reacts with a mole of limestone converting it to a mole of gypsum, then that's 935 moles of limestone dissolved.There are 100.1 grams of calcium carbonate per mole.If we multiply that by 935 moles we get 93,600 grams or 93.6 kilograms.So each ton of coal burnt by a u.S.Power plant produces enough sulfuric acid.
To dissolve about 94 kilograms of limestone.And as we burn about a billion tons of coal per year, it's safe to say that no statue is safe, except for ones built of materials immune to acids, particularly oxidized copper, which will last pretty much forever.Hence, lady liberty's hand presiding over the planet of the apes.So, this is clearly a problem.I mean not just for statues, but acid rain has killed or harmed huge swaths of forests.At the peak of acid rain problems in the u.S.The highest recorded acidity was around that of lemon juice,.
Which i can tell you, is pretty acidic high enough to irritate human skin.This first became an issue for the power generation when the british house of lords, in 1929, ruled that a power station was liable to damages caused to nearby crops by acid rain.So something had to be done, but what well, we already know one very common chemical that reacts easily with sulfuric acid good old limestone, and in england, there is lots of limestone.By passing the smoke stack gases through a limestone slurry, the so2 converts to an acid and then reacts with the limestone forming caso3, calcium sulfate.
Now we're gonna do something a little different for those of you who want to go the extra mile.Assuming that one billion metric tons of 3 sulfur coal was burnt in america every year, and all of it is converted to so2, how many tons of limestone would we need to scrub out 100 of that sulfur.Answer us down below in the comments.The limestone scrubber is a good system, but it's not perfect.Many other flue gas desulfurization systems have been developed, and now through a combination of good policy, good science, and hard work,.
About 95 of sulfur produced in coal fired power plants in the u.S.Is removed before it leaves the smoke stack.And through some even smarter chemistry, some of that so2 is actually converted to industrially useful chemicals.For example, pure sulfuric acid, which is used in paper mills, iron and steel making, industrial cleaner, and chemical synthesis.Chemistry! causing problems but also fixing them.Thank you for watching this episode of crash course chemistry.If you were paying attention, you may have learned that chemistry can cause death, that acids and bases are more complicated than you thought they were,.
And that acid donates protons while a base accepts them.You also should have learned that when an acid donates a proton it forms a conjugate base and when a base donates a proton it forms a conjugate acid.Also, we did a little bit of acidbase stoichiometry.This episode of crash course chemistry was written by kim krieger and myself.The script was edited by blake de pastino, and our chemistry consultant is Heiko langner.Our director, cinematographer, and editor is nicholas jenkins.Script supervisor is caitlin hofmeister.Sound design is by michael aranda, and our graphics team is thought cafe.
Colorful Chemistry of Acids and Bases
Let me show you a magic trick.This might look like an ordinary kettle, but it's a magic kettle.And it's magic because it will pour any color that i ask it to.Oh, you don't believe me check this out.Pink.Hey, not bad.Ok, blue.Red.Ok.How about green no, no, no.I mean, yellow.And ok.And then green.So there we go.A rainbow of colors.So i bet you're wondering how i did that.Well it's not magic.But it is some pretty cool science.
My name's tyler, and i'm a student at mit.And i'm going to teach you the science behind this magic trick.And i'm going to show you how you can do it yourself at home.But first we have to go to the lab and learn a little bit about some chemicals called acids, and some chemicals called bases.So let's go and check it out.Welcome to my lab.This is where i have all my chemicals that i use for these science experiments that i do every day.And i also brought a few of these chemicals here from home.
I also have a bunch of beakers here, and i filled the beakers with a liquid called indicator.You can see the indicator, this indicator i'm using, has sort of a blue, purplish color.And that's going to be important.Indicator tells us whether a chemical is acid, base, or neutral.Let me show you what i mean.I'm going to take a chemical here add little drops of it to the indicator.See these drops make a very light purple.And there's some pink, and some more pink, and it gets pinker and pinker, the more i add.
And now it gets darker and darker, and i eventually get a really deep, bright red.Isn't that cool if we can add a chemical to this indicator, and it makes it redder and redder and redder it starts with purple and goes to pink and goes to red we call it an acid.So this chemical here is an acid.Let's take a look at another example.Here's a fresh beaker of indicator.And again, you can see that it sort of starts at a blue, very light purple color.
Now i'm going to take this other chemical, and i'm going to add it to the indicator.Let's see what happens now.You can see little bits of green in the indicator as i start dropping this in.Now we go to a really nice, blue color, a very bright blue.And then it becomes sort of aquamarine here, greener and greener now.And now it turns the indicator green.And i'll show you what happens if we add even more.This gets more and more yellow, until we have a yellow solution.
And it's a really bright, cool, yellow color.If we can add a chemical to an indicator and it makes it darker blue, or that brighter blue, that really nice blue, and then greener, and finally yellow if it can make any of those colors when we add it to the indicator we call it a base.So acids make it pink and then red.And bases make it blue and then green and then yellow, if we add a whole lot of it.Ok.Let's look at another example.I have a third chemical here.
I'm going to add some of it, dropping it in here, lots of drops.And i'm not really seeing any change.The color remains the same.And as you'll see, i can add as much of this is i want and the color is still going to stay this blue, purplish color.That's because this compound, this chemical, we call it neutral.It's not acid and it's not base.So it doesn't change the color of the indicator.We can add as much as we want and the indicator is just.
Going to stay the same color.So those are our three categories of chemicals acids, bases, and then those that are neutral.You can tell whether something is acid or base or neutral by the color that it makes an indicator.You may think that this indicator is a fancy chemical that i'd only have in a lab, but actually i made this indicator in the kitchen back in my house.And you can do the same thing.We're going to need some indicator for the magic trick that we're figuring out.
And i'm going to show you how to make this kind of indicator back in your kitchen.So let's go take a look at that.Ok, so here we are in my kitchen.And i want to show you how to make this acid base indicator that we've been using so you can do these color changes yourself, and so you can do the magic trick.So i will say this is pretty easy, but you're going to have to boil some water and use a stove.So make sure you have an adult around.
To help you with that step.Here's the stuff you're going to need.First of all, you're going to need a red cabbage.You should be able to find something like this at any supermarket.And then you're going to need a pot to boil some water in.And then you're going to need a strainer.And that's it.It's pretty simple.So what you want to do is you want to take the pot and you want to fill it about halfway up with water.And then you want to take the cabbage,.
And start pulling off parts of its leaves and putting those in the pan.And you want to fill it up until pretty much all the cabbage is covered with water.So this is a pretty good amount right about here.And then what you want to do is turn up the heat and boil water.Let it boil for four or five minutes.And then turn the heat off and let it sit for 15 minutes, 10 to 15 minutes.And after you do that, what you're going to see.
Is the cabbage is going to lose its color.All that purple dye that was in the cabbage leaves is going to come out into the water.And you're going to end up with purple cabbage juice.And then the final thing you need to do is you need to take this and, using a strainer, pour the juice off the top of it.And now you have your cabbage juice indicator all ready to go.Let's go and see what we can do this indicator, and then find out how we can do this magic trick.
Ok, so now that you've made your cabbage juice, you're all ready to start testing things around the house to see whether they're acid, neutral, or basic.And see those cool color changes.I have here next to me a few examples of things that you can test around the house.But really anything that's a liquid or a powder, you should be able to test.Just check with your parents first to make sure that you don't use anything that's dangerous or toxic or anything.So ok everything with them first.
But let's just do a quick example here.Let's say that you wanted to test a little bit of a glass cleaner here.You could spray just a little bit into the bottom of a glass, and then add the indicator.Ooh.It turns a sort of blue green, so we know that it's a base.Or let's say that we wanted to test some hot sauce here.Add a little of the hot sauce, couple drops in there.And then all we've got to do is just add a little bit of the indicator.
Oh, and we get a nice, a nice red, sort of pinkish color.So we know that this is an acid.Now let's talk about the magic trick.So how did i do it well, you might sort of have been figuring parts of it out.I took my tea kettle here.And i filled it with indicator.An indicator, as you know, changes color depending on whether i add an acid or base.So what i did was i took glasses like this, and i added a little bit of acid or base.
Into the very bottom of it.I tried to find clear liquids that were acids and bases.So let's do an example here.Let's say that i wanted a red color.What i do is i take a little bit of vinegar and i'd use vinegar because i know that vinegar is an acid, so it's going to give me a red color add a little bit of this into the bottom here.Now if you're doing this magic trick, you'll be able to see the clear liquid in the bottom.
But trust me, no one else will, especially if you make sure that they keep a little bit of distance, especially if you're using a clear glass, a clear glass like this, they won't be able to see it if you have it on a table.So you say that they're empty, or don't say anything at all and people will assume that they're empty.And then go ahead and you take your tea kettle, or your pitcher of indicator, and you pour it in.And you'll get a nice red or a pink color.
Ok.So there are a whole wide range of colors you can get.You can get reds and you're going to get pinks and blues and purples and greens.And what i want you to do is experiment to find out which of these chemicals in your house give you these different colors.And then put a little bit of that chemical that gives you the color in the bottom.And pour in the indicator to get that color.Now you may find that different amounts of these chemicals give you different colors.
So maybe a little bit of glass cleaner will give you a bright blue, but a little bit more glass cleaner will give you a green.So experiment with all these things.There's one thing that i do want to tell you, though.You can get a really nice, yellow color by using a little bit of bleach.But bleach can be dangerous, so make sure that you work with an adult if you're going to do this.Put a few drops of bleach in the bottom of a glass like this,.
Acidic Foods Vs Alkaline Foods
Acidic foods vs alkaline foods,Thank you for watching as an extension of my previous tip tutorial on alkaline water watch here swatchvtxqinry4xc i. Science experiment red cabbage indicator test,We test for acid and alkaline in household items boil red cabbage in water or soak if your more patient than we are then drain and reserve the liquid. Diy soil ph test how to test soil acidityalkalinity without a test kit,Tngunhowtotestsoilacidityalkalinitywithoutatestkit.
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Basics of ph iitutor,Siitutor learn the words acidic alkaline basic and neutral you will learn to look at ph charts how ph is measured examples of everyday life.
The alkaline diet reviewsknow whats good and bad,The link below for more information thealkalinediettricks what impact does an alkaline diet have on multiple sclerosis the symptoms of. Acidbase reactions in solution crash course chemistry 8,Last week hank talked about how stuff mixes together in solutions today and for the next few weeks he will talk about the actual reactions happening in those.
The Alkaline Diet Healthy Alkaline Foods PH Balance Food Chart
The alkaline diet healthy alkaline foods ph balance food chart,For more information please click link herehairizrecommendsacidalkalinediet the diet of our ancestors is completely different from what. Test acids with homemade ph indicator live experiments ep 35 head squeeze,Warning this experiment uses corrosive materials use protective gloves jon chase creates his own acidity indicator and then tests a series of household. Ph prescription alkaline water,Our body is alkaline and functions best in an alkaline environment however everyday life creates acid digestion respiration and stress all generate acid and.
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Incredible chemical reaction,Add me on facebook click like on facebook to add mefacebookbrusspup download the song in this tutorial song name monolith itunes. Chemicals in household products the truth about bleach,Mywellnesssolutionweeblychemicalsinhouseholdproducts when we talk about bleach we actually refer to sodium hypochlorite solution or. The sci guys science at home se2 ep4 red cabbage ph indicator acid base indicator,Welcome to the fourth episode of season 2 of the sci guys in this episode we will be creating a ph indicator acid base indicator using red cabbage then we.
A Colorful Magic Trick With Acids And Bases
A colorful magic trick with acids and bases,To see all my chemistry tutorials check out socraticchemistry check out a magic trick and then learn how to do it yourself at home well go over the. How to clean battery terminals an acid corroded car battery,Handymanpf i show you how to clean a battery by neutralizing the battery acid and rinsing with these simple stepsusing common household products. Alkaline food chart and 3 best alkaline fruits,Alkaline food chart and 3 best alkaline fruits get your free alkaline foods chart kevmac8alkadiethopclickbanktidtutorials.
Balance ph alkaline water remove toxins,Balance ph alkaline water remove toxins balance you bodys ph with our alkaline energized water an alkaline body prevent disease and slows the. Alkaline food suggested by dr sebi,Kamut and spelt are grains featured in this tutorial coconut milk is also featured. How to do it yourself diy and make a water alkalinization ionization ionizer water sytem unit,This is another in my how to series of making things in this tutorial i show you how to make a water ionization alkalization water unit using simple parts found.
Sevenpoint2 usa weight loss made simple alkaline food,The sevenpoint2 weight loss made simple program is the only alkaline diet system on the market that decreases the acidic environment of the body causing. Acidbase home lab 61310 chemistry project,So instead of another train tutorial this week i thought why dont i just upload my chemistry project tutorial for something different it involves boiling cabbage. Mr glane chemistry demo acid base reaction,This demo uses universal indicator to show how an acid reacts with a base to create water i also explain limiting reagent using this demo the reaction is a.