Acidbase properties of salts Acids and bases Chemistry Khan Academy
let's say we have some hydrochloric acid, and a solution of sodium hydroxide.We know that hydrochloric acid is a strong acid so we can think about it as consisting of h and cl.Sodium hydroxide is a strong base, so in solution we're going to have sodium ions and hydroxide anions.Let's think about the products for this reaction.One product would be h, and oh.If you put h and oh together, you form h20.So water is one of our products, and the other product would be what's leftover.
We have na and cl, so that gives us nacl which is sodium chloride.This is an example of an acid base neutralization reaction where an acid reacts with the base to give you water and a salt.In this case, our salt is sodium chloride.Let's think about an aqueous solution of sodium chloride.You take some water, and you take some salt, and you dissolve your sodium chloride in water to make your solution.In solution, you're gonna have sodium cations and chloride anions.Let's think about what those would do with water.
We know that the ph of water is seven.The ph of water is equal to seven.Sodium ions don't react with water so they're not going to affect the ph of our solution.You might think that the chloride anion could function as a weak base, and take a proton from water.However, that's not really gonna happen very well because the chloride anion, cl, this is the conjugate base to hcl.We know that hcl is a strong acid, and the stronger the acid, the weaker the conjugate base.
With a very strong acid, we're gonna get a very weak conjugate base so the chloride anion can't really take protons from water very well so the ph is unaffected.The ph of our solution of sodium chloride is equal to seven.When you have a salt that was formed from a strong acid and a strong base, so sodium chloride was formed from a strong acid and a strong base, these salts form neutral solutions.So your ph should be equal to seven.Let's compare this situation to the salt that's formed from a weak acid,.
And a strong base.Over here we have acetic acid which we know is a weak acid.Then we have sodium hydroxide which is our strong base.In solution, we would have na and oh.Hydroxide is going to take the acidic proton on acetic acid, and this is the acidic proton on acetic acid.Once again, h and oh give us h20.Let's think about the salt that forms here.If you take a proton away from acetic acid, you're left with acetate.You're left with ch3coo, the acetate ion.
We also still have sodium ions here.The sodium ion could ionically bond over here with your acetate anion.Here we formed sodium acetate.Let's think about an aqueous solution of sodium acetate.We know that the ph of water is seven.Let's think about what we have in solution.Once again , we have sodium cations which aren't going to react with water so that's not going to affect the ph at all.But the acetate anions will.Let's go ahead and write out what would happen, the acetate anions are going to react with water.
Let's think about what would happen here.Let's put this at equilibrium.The acetate anions.We know this is the conjugate base to acetic acid.This is gonna function as a bronstedlowry base, and water is gonna function as a bronstedlowry acid.Water is going to donate a proton to the acetate anion.If the acetate anion picks up a proton, we would form acetic acid, ch3cooh.So just add an h to the acetate anion.If the acetate anion takes a proton away from h20, if you take an h away from h20,.
You're left with oh here.What has happened in our solution the fact that the acetate anion is present has increased the concentration of hydroxide ions in soluiton.We've increased the concentration of hydroxide ions so the ph is no longer seven.We've increased the ph here.The ph should be greater than seven.An aqueous solution of sodium acetate is gonna have a ph of greater than seven.In general, this is true.If you have the salt, this salt here that was formed from a weak acid and a strong base,.
These salts form basic solutions with phs greater than seven.Let's look at one more example.This is the example of a strong acid and a weak base.Hcl is our strong acid, and ammonia is our weak base.So hcl is h and cl.We're going to donate a proton to nh3.If nh3 accepts a proton, it's gonna turn into nh4 so this is ammonium.We also have some chloride anions.That would ionically interact with the ammonium so we form ammonium chloride here.So this is our salt.
Let's think about an aqueous solution of ammonium chloride.Once again, for water the ph is seven, and the chloride anions aren't going to affect the ph.But the ammonium ion will.Nh4 will react with water and affect the ph.Let's look at the reactions.Nh4 h20, so what's going to happen here.The ammonium ion is an acid.It's gonna function as a bronstedlowry acid.It's going to donate a proton to water.Water's gonna function as a bronstedlowry base, and accept a proton.If you take away an h from nh4,.
You're left with nh3 or ammonia.If you add an h to h20, then you get h30 or hydronium.What is happening in our solution we've increased the concentration of hydronium ions.We've increased the concentration of hydronium, and we know that what that's gonna do to the ph.Our ph is no longer going to be seven.We're going to decrease the ph, so we have an acidic solution.The ph is now less than seven.An aqueous solution of ammonium chloride is going to have a ph of less than seven.
AcidBase Reactions in Solution Crash Course Chemistry 8
All right, so you're studying chemistry, what's the worst that could happen in most classes, the worst that can happen is just abject, total failure.You're just like failing the test, failing the class, having to rethink your life choices, maybe even quit, drop out of school, get a job at a diner, and start smoking lucky strikes.But in chemistry, the worst thing that can happen is death.And i don't want to make light of this labs are dangerous places.Chemists die younger than the average person, both because of workplace accidents and cancer caused by exposure to chemicals.
But chemists have also done more to increase the average lifespan of humans on earth than, in my opinion, any other profession.So, it's a necessary hazard.Last week we talked about stuff mixing together, and that's important for sure.But today and for the next few weeks, we're gonna talk about the actual reactions happening in those solutions.Dangerous reactions atoms reorganizing themselves to create whole new substances.These are the processes that make our world the world that we know and love.Some of them are benign and beautiful, some of them are facemeltingly terrifying.
And that's not hyperbole, i mean actual melted faces.Theme music captain john mullen, there, he blazed the first wagon trail across the rocky mountains into the interior pacific northwest.The captain's only been standing in this spot right here for about 75 years.And look what's happened to his face.I know this maybe isn't the face melting you were expecting, but we're not so gruesome here at crash course chemistry.The sorry state of mr.Mullen's face here is the result of an acidbase reaction, one of the three major types of reactions that happen in solution,.
That we'll be talking about here at crash course chemistry.And the acid that did this, was mostly sulfuric acid.Now you may be wondering, who's been coming by and throwing sulfuric acid on statues well actually, what's been doing the throwing is clouds, the sky, though the actual source of the sulfuric acid, that's 400 miles away at the colstrip power plant in colstrip, montana, and also at coal fired power plants all over the united states.The united states of america burns about a billion tons of coal per year,.
And most of that coal, is mined right here in the u.S.Montana, where i live, is home to the powder river basin, a geographical location responsible for 40 of america's coal output.Between fifty and seventy freight trains ship out of the powder river basin every day.Each train has at least 115 coal cars and is more than a mile and a half long.And all of this coal burning, it has effects, significant effects, acidic effects.But first, like, what exactly are acids and bases.Well acids.Uhh.Sour.So sour, that's the first thing that we learned about acids,.
Actually, and that's why acid.Uuhh.Actually means sour in greek or latin.Latin.Acids are excellent at dissolving stuff they kill things and melt your face.What about bases you might have some idea about what a base is bitter tasting, slippery like soap soap is in fact a base.And bases, like acids, are totally dangerous and can melt off your face.They're also like the antiacid basically.In fact, they're in antacids.If you mix acids and bases together they neutralize each other.But as with most things in chemistry and in life,.
When it comes right down to trying to define exactly what something is, it gets weird and messy and confusing and terrible.So, forget everything you ever learned about acids, wipe the slate clean, the most common acid on earth is water.Wuh and water is the most common base, and am i saying this purely to confuse you yes! well, mostly to convince you that the world is way more complicated than you thought it was.In 1923, two guys simultaneously defined acids and bases in the exact same way.
Bronsted and lowry defined them they didn't classify them by how they acted or what they tasted like or even what they were made of, they defined them.And this was an impressive feat because a huge class of molecules, to some extent or another, act as acids and bases.So to come up with a definition that fit all of them, that was not so simple.Bronsted and lowry defined an acid as being anything that donates a proton and a base as being anything that accepts a proton.And when we say proton, what we're talking about here is a hydrogen atom without its electron.
Usually this is happening in water, acids and bases can react in gas, but almost always they're in an aqueous solution, and when a proton gets donated in water, it is accepted by water.And h2o is converted into h3o, the hydronium ion.So when an acid is added to water, it dissociates, like any other ionic compound, forming h3o and a negative ion.The acid has donated a proton to the water.Also a little chemistry terminology thing we usually just write h or say protons in solution when in fact we are referring to hydronium ions.
It's just a short hand.In reality, h in aqueous solution is always h3o.Let's take a look at the dissociation of hydrochloric acid for some more terminology bits here.You see right off the bat that the hcl is donating a proton.But with many acids, particularly weaker acids, the reaction can actually go back the other way, with h3o donating it's proton.So in this situation, every chemical in the reaction, also sometimes the major species, can be called an acid or a base.On the left hand side, the water is accepting the proton so it's the base, and hcl is donating it, so it's the acid.
And on the left hand side, the cl would be accepting the proton, so that would be the conjugate base, and the hydronium ion is the conjugate acid.The phrase conjugate acid always used to confuse me because i thought it had something to do with conjugating verbs.But it's actually the older, original sense of the word the one where conjugal, or marriage related visits for prisoners, come from, which means joined together.For every acid, there is a conjugate base and for every base there is a conjugate acid.
Previous definitions of acids and bases, particularly the one proposed by our old friend arrhenius, relied on specific major species.Most notably our friend the oh or hydroxide ion.And while hydroxide is in most bases, it's not in all of them.For example, ammonia acts as a base when it reacts with hydrochloric acid to form ammonium chloride.There's no hydroxide but there is definitely proton donation and acceptance going on.Now acids and bases are not all created equal.Certain acids really like to get rid of their protons.
And will only reluctantly convert back to their conjugate base by accepting a proton.We call them strong acids, and the conjugate base is a weak base.The same can be said for strong bases and their weak conjugate acids.The reason why all of the most interesting acidbase chemistry happens in water is that dihydrogen oxide is really great at being either a base, accepting a proton from an acid, or an acid, donating a proton to a base.Thus water is the world's most common acid and also the most common base.
So, what does any of this have to do with power plants and john mullen's face when coal is burned the sulfur in it reacts with oxygen to form sulfur dioxide.That sulfur dioxide then reacts with water and oxygen in the air to form sulfuric acid.When that sulfuric acid rains down, a set of acidbase reactions take place that damages limestone and metal, and acidifies the water supply, making life harder for fish, coral, salamanders, and pretty much everything else.Limestone is mostly made of a chemical called calcium carbonate.
The carbonate acts as the base, accepting sulfuric acid's protons and converting them to carbonic acid the conjugate acid, which breaks down into co2 and water.Calcium and sulfate ions may precipitate as a salt that's more commonly known as gypsum.Ok, so the average ton of coal in america is about 3 sulfur.Supposing a hundred percent of those 30 kilograms of sulfur leaves the smoke stack and converts to sulfuric acid, how much limestone could that completely wash away as i've said before, just follow the units.30 kilograms of sulfur multiplied by 1000 grams per kilogram,.
Multiply that by 1 mole over 32.1 grams of sulfur to get 935 moles of sulfur in every ton of coal burnt.Now, if every mole of that sulfur is converted to h2so4 and every mole of that sulfuric acid reacts with a mole of limestone converting it to a mole of gypsum, then that's 935 moles of limestone dissolved.There are 100.1 grams of calcium carbonate per mole.If we multiply that by 935 moles we get 93,600 grams or 93.6 kilograms.So each ton of coal burnt by a u.S.Power plant produces enough sulfuric acid.
To dissolve about 94 kilograms of limestone.And as we burn about a billion tons of coal per year, it's safe to say that no statue is safe, except for ones built of materials immune to acids, particularly oxidized copper, which will last pretty much forever.Hence, lady liberty's hand presiding over the planet of the apes.So, this is clearly a problem.I mean not just for statues, but acid rain has killed or harmed huge swaths of forests.At the peak of acid rain problems in the u.S.The highest recorded acidity was around that of lemon juice,.
Which i can tell you, is pretty acidic high enough to irritate human skin.This first became an issue for the power generation when the british house of lords, in 1929, ruled that a power station was liable to damages caused to nearby crops by acid rain.So something had to be done, but what well, we already know one very common chemical that reacts easily with sulfuric acid good old limestone, and in england, there is lots of limestone.By passing the smoke stack gases through a limestone slurry, the so2 converts to an acid and then reacts with the limestone forming caso3, calcium sulfate.
Now we're gonna do something a little different for those of you who want to go the extra mile.Assuming that one billion metric tons of 3 sulfur coal was burnt in america every year, and all of it is converted to so2, how many tons of limestone would we need to scrub out 100 of that sulfur.Answer us down below in the comments.The limestone scrubber is a good system, but it's not perfect.Many other flue gas desulfurization systems have been developed, and now through a combination of good policy, good science, and hard work,.
About 95 of sulfur produced in coal fired power plants in the u.S.Is removed before it leaves the smoke stack.And through some even smarter chemistry, some of that so2 is actually converted to industrially useful chemicals.For example, pure sulfuric acid, which is used in paper mills, iron and steel making, industrial cleaner, and chemical synthesis.Chemistry! causing problems but also fixing them.Thank you for watching this episode of crash course chemistry.If you were paying attention, you may have learned that chemistry can cause death, that acids and bases are more complicated than you thought they were,.
And that acid donates protons while a base accepts them.You also should have learned that when an acid donates a proton it forms a conjugate base and when a base donates a proton it forms a conjugate acid.Also, we did a little bit of acidbase stoichiometry.This episode of crash course chemistry was written by kim krieger and myself.The script was edited by blake de pastino, and our chemistry consultant is Heiko langner.Our director, cinematographer, and editor is nicholas jenkins.Script supervisor is caitlin hofmeister.Sound design is by michael aranda, and our graphics team is thought cafe.
The Healing Properties Of Alkaline Water
The healing properties of alkaline water,Maintain optimal balance between cellular breakdown and renewal mystemcellpower restore and revitalize your skins youthful vibrance at the. Acidbase reactions in solution crash course chemistry 8,Last week hank talked about how stuff mixes together in solutions today and for the next few weeks he will talk about the actual reactions happening in those.
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Acidbase properties of salts acids and bases chemistry khan academy,Examples of different kinds of neutralization reactions and analyzing the ph of the resulting salt solution watch the next lesson.
Kangen Water New Zealand Acid Vs Alkaline
Kangen water new zealand acid vs alkaline,Properties of kangen water. Diabetes and ionized alkaline water and strong acid water,Mykangenalkalinewater watch the amazing healing properties from the enagic machines i the ionized alkaline water and ii the strong acid water. Grapefruit has quinine propertiesextreme sicknesslupusleg crampscancer,Fatigue grapefruits are also beneficial in the treatment of fatigue so it can help you to dispel your general tiredness caused from routine or boring work.
The alkaline diet,Adventuresinveg you have probably heard about the alkaline diet but have you also heard about the health benefits of alkaline diet foods. Properties of water acids and bases part 1,This lesson reviews the polarity of the water molecule and its lifegiving properties continue on to part 2 to learn about water ionization ph acids and bases. Group 2 elements chemical properties and products,The medicine compounds take a look to find out why also included is the reactions of group 2 with water oxygen and chlorine also the solubilities of group 2.
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Enagic SD501 Kangen Alkaline Water Demonstration
Enagic sd501 kangen alkaline water demonstration,Demonstration of the enagic levelluk sd501 water ionizer showing the qualities of the 5 types of water the machine produces how and why this water. Compare alkaline water with base powder astonishing news,Everyone would assume that alkaline powder dissolved in water produces a solution with alkaline properties but in practice it is a little bit different natural. Acidic blood vs alkaline blood,This is a tutorial of dr vegas research on goji this is amazing proof that when taken in the right amounts goji takes effect within 48 hours.
Properties of water acids and bases part 2,Part 2 reviews the ionization of water and the properties of acids bases and buffers. Aqa chemistry new old spec the alkaline earth metals gp 2,This tutorial runs through the gp 2 topic from unit 2 of the aqa as spec note that it does not cover trends in physical properties these are covered in unit 1. What is alkaline water is it the same as alkaline ionized water,Learn more about alkaline water drinkingwaternobswater the buzz about alkaline water is not accurate additional factors make ideal benefits of.
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